POLITICS, WAR, RELIGION & SOCIETY

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MEDIA AND INFORMATION WARFARE

ABSTRACT

The information is known, as a precious commodity. It is absolute and general, as it has to do ultimately with knowledge but it becomes more important especially in more practical and specific, where it can become a valuable bargaining chip. The information, in other words, besides having a value as “raw material” is also a powerful weapon, and as such can be used alone but especially in war. The media is playing a strong and the most powerful part in the information welfare across the globe. The following research paper is the evaluation of the media and information warfare, especially highlighting the media and psychological operations.

Media and Information Warfare

Introduction

At the present stage of civilization computerization plays a key role in the functioning of state institutions and the public in the lives of everyone. Information leads to the creation of a single world information space within which is the accumulation, processing, storage and exchange of information between the actors in this space – people, organizations and states. A quick exchange of political, economic, scientific, technical and other information using new information technologies in all spheres of public life is a definite boon. However, the necessary degree of information can only be achieved by a society that has a high scientific, technical and industrial potential and sufficient cultural and educational level. States without such preconditions comprehensive development, further and further relegated to the margins of social and technological progress. Therefore, the following research paper is the analysis of media welfare across the globe.

Discussions

                           

Information Warfare

Information warfare (Eng. Information War) is a term that has two meanings:

1) The impact on the civilian population and / or personnel of another country through the distribution of certain information. The term “information-psychological war” was borrowed in the Russian language from the dictionary of the U.S. military circles. The translation of this term («information and psychological warfare») with the English language can sound and how to “information warfare “, and how to” information, psychological warfare, “according to the specific context of a document or a scientific publication.

In this sense, the term is also used psychological warfare – the psychological impact on civilian populations and (or) the military of another country in order to achieve political or purely military purposes.

2) Targeted actions taken to achieve information superiority by damaging information, information processes and information systems of the enemy while protecting their own information, information processes and information systems.

The theoretical and Scientific Foundations of Information War                                   

The speed with which modern information and communication technology burst into our lives, allowed talking about the “digital revolution”, which is already transforming social and economic life. In communications and information industries, there are undergoing fundamental changes. To reach 50 million people, radio took 38 years, and television – for 13 years. In just four years as many people began to use the Internet.

In 1993, the “global web”, there were only 50 pages and is today more than 1 billion. In 1998 it was connected to the Internet is only 143 million people by 2001, the number of users reached 700 million, and now – about 2 billion. Internet access is already used to a much wider area than any of ever previously applied communication.

Equally impressive, and most importantly – the lightning, the changes have led to the desire to retain global leadership guide the world’s leading causes countries to reconsider their approach to the conduct of foreign and domestic policy.

 

Psychological Operations and Media Warfare

The practice of information and psychological warfare in the modern world gets more and more development. The terms “information” and “psychological war” are widely used by politicians and political analysts. The concept of asymmetry is increasingly being used in the context of information security issues. What are the informational war and the manner in which they are involved in the management of socio-political processes?

There are several definitions of information warfare. I would like to bring some of them. Thus, some experts believe that the information war – a “comprehensive joint application of forces and means of information and the armed struggle.” Others are of the opinion that “the information war – is on the communicative impact of technology on information and information systems of the enemy in order to achieve information superiority in the interest of the national strategy, while protecting their own information and information systems.”The second definition is more precise and more fully reveals the essence of information warfare, aimed at establishing control over the information space and the mechanism of government decision-making.

Stages of Information Warfare

In the information war, there are three main stages:

  • definition of objectives (why do we need and that need to get a result);
  • strategy, which should take into account the four pillars of communication technology (preparation of reports, the definition of the channel selection device, the target audience, which is focused message)
  • plan tactical actions.

At present, information wars come to the forefront of the options in the field of information dominance. It is necessary to distinguish between the two directions of information warfare: direct informational and psychological. In the first case, the objects of influence are, as noted above, computers and information systems, in the second – individual and mass consciousness. Accordingly, it depends on the chosen methods of exposure.

In the information war to plan their own resources and those of the enemy, taking into account the following factors:

  • distribution of the campaign in time and space;
  • availability of appropriate material and technical base;
  • ability to attract highly skilled professionals;
  • availability of adequate financial base;
  • access to the media.

In the case of psychological warfare comes first process of forming public opinion. In this case, effectively downplaying the significance of an event, to prevent it in the information space, the use of communication campaigns in the “spiral of silence” that is, representation of minority views as the views of the majority population and the shift, so the semantic and ideological emphasis.

Objectives and Instruments of Information and Psychological Warfare

Objectives and instruments of information and psychological warfare can be represented as follows:

War Object Tool
Information Computer and information systems of the enemy Destruction
Psychological Individual and mass consciousness The introduction of new types of messages

Using the tools of psychological warfare during the war of information makes it possible, on the one hand, to destroy the existing information system, on the other – make a change of the communicative setting in the community and thus subjugate its interests to those of the aggressor.

The main tool of information policy is new. American experts give the following definition of news: “news – a violation of norms, which is always asymmetrical.” Consequently, we can conclude that the success of the information weapon is its degree of asymmetry.

The asymmetry of information influence is particularly evident in negative contexts. It may be, for example, an accusation or denial, for which there is inadequate public reaction. Asymmetric information actions are more likely to succeed because they cannot logically oppose the reasoned response, which is why the asymmetry is the only option in the event of a collision with a stronger opponent. Also, the asymmetry can be attributed to the certain demands made by a neutral or opposite side. Politics quite widely used U.S. and that there are plenty of examples.

In the framework of information and psychological operations communication program can be directed to:

  • restructuring of the hostile relations of selected individuals and groups;
  • strengthening of friendly relations-minded individuals and groups;
  • Maintaining a constant neutralizing those whose relationships are unstructured, who is a “safe” by being neutral.

In developing the plan in this case, the tactical actions to be taken into account the following information:

  • definition of the target audience in a given society;
  • beliefs, attitudes, opinions and motivations of the target audiences;
  • analysis of the points of vulnerability in this model of behavior;
  • determine the most effective channels to reach the goal;
  • secondary effect of the first phase of the study of information warfare.

In recent years the importance of information warfare is steadily increasing, and its main features is the lack of visible damage and gradual imperceptible introduction into all spheres of public life. On the example of Iraq-US conflict can be traced quite clearly that the rule in the world today is provided primarily through the media. Media have become the “first power”, which largely depend on changes in the world geopolitical changes. That is why the problem of information warfare and the establishment of information security is as urgent as at present.

 

The Tactics of Information Warfare

The tactics of information warfare is a combination of theory and practice of implementation of information warfare, which is based on the strategy and is a practical form of its implementation. From a practical point of view, a successful information campaign involves analysis: financial resources, and their enemy, the leading media monitoring (circulation, the orientation of the audience, periodicity, and the attitude of journalists of various media to you), personal qualities of the team, the basic strategy.

The most difficult task is to coordinate information management activities. For successful implementation of this paragraph must be a plan-schedule for the next sample.

A. Schedule Inform campaign, including:

  • purpose;
  • stages;
  • evaluation of effectiveness;
  • time.

The schedule of work managing information campaign, which provides:

  • schedule of work task forces;
  • schedule for performance evaluation.

If required, developing schedule adjustments. Information warfare can be conducted in the areas of:

  • the military;
  • political;
  • technology;
  • ideological / religious;
  • economic;
  • social.

Causes of information warfare may be the following:

  • struggle for influence;
  • short-term conflicts and crisis situations;
  • competition for resources;
  • military conflicts;
  • competition.

Levels of Information Warfare

Among the areas of information warfare as in the strategic and the tactical aspect, there are three levels:

  • an individual;
  • the public;
  • geopolitical.

Basic principles of information warfare tactics at a geopolitical level:

  • Plan goals and objectives;
  • records of all spheres of state activity;
  • account peculiarities of the information space;
  • choosing the most appropriate level of inform-war.

In information warfare tactics, there are three most commonly used combat tactics:

  • placement of negative information in order to cause a response in advance of the enemy in a more favorable context for themselves (“preemptive strike”);
  • placement of information in order to determine the reaction of public opinion (“trial balloon”);
  • placement of information in order to restore the integrity of the information space (“Information counterattack”).

In a more advantageous position in the information war is the one who attacked. The principle of surprise works very well. The tactics of informational influence based on the following patterns:

  • emotional message more rational;
  • interpreting the actual message is stronger;
  • Post a familiar object is stronger than the unfamiliar.

Information may be modified in three planes:

  • prohibited;
  • spread is limited;
  • changed.

Information management system must meet four criteria:

  • feasibility (based solely on the goals and objectives);
  • non-standard (individual approach to every situation);
  • efficiency;
  • sequence (clearly defined and well-considered plan of action).

The organization that performs the task of information management should have the following structure:

Department List of works
Electronic media
  • preparation of materials for radio and TV;
  • media planning;
  • monitoring of the body – and radio programs (assessment of   opponents’ actions and performance);
  • work with radio and television journalists.
Press
  • preparation of detail. materials;
  • preparation of detail. reference books;
  • write pamphlets on the issue;
  • media monitoring;
  • media planning;
  • work with journalists.
Internet
  • Training materials for the site;
  • monitoring the Internet;
  • media planning;
  • work with journalists;
  • development and launch sites.
Briefings and press conferences
  • preparation and implementation;
  • preparation of brochures, press kits;
  • Work with the media.
Analytical
  • inform the analysis. field;
  • inform the analysis. situation and inform. Order of the organization;
  • forecasting;
  • development of a program of information management;
  • analysis of its performance;
  • development of strategy and tactics of information management.
Resources
  • Preparation for the individual interviews, speeches;
  • working off information events;
  • Development of the image;
  • consulting to develop emotional stability of the object.
Economic
  • business plan development campaigns;
  • economic analysis of media plans;
  • the program funding the campaign.
Security
  • confidentiality of the program detail. management;
  • monitoring of financial expenditure;
  • safety communications;
  • ensuring the physical safety of participants in the program management information.

 

Information Warfare in the Modern Era

At the present time, according to U.S. experts, information warfare (PI) is not simply a form of security operations by the armed forces violations of the processes of control and command and control, electronic countermeasures, moral and psychological effects, and so on, but goes far beyond these issues. This is indicated by the results of basic research conducted by experts of the American corporation “Rand” in the late 90s.

In January 1995, this influential company was charged in the activities carried out by U.S. Department of Defense, to carry out some research in this area. Their goal was to identify key characteristics and features of information warfare, a possible clarification of its impact on national security and to identify the main activities in the field of IP, strengthening national security and the strengthening of technological superiority in the field of information warfare, coordination of scientific and industrial organizations in determining the basic ways to improve the security strategy of national information systems. The results of these studies were to serve as the basis for the designation of the role and place of information warfare in the national military strategy of the United States, and a year later, they submitted a report MR-661-OSD (Strategic Information Warfare. A new face of War).

The report says that changes in the political life of a number of states, caused a rapid pace of information and computerization of society, lead to a revision of the geo-political views of the leadership, the emergence of new strategic interests (including in the information sphere), resulting in a change in policies pursued by these countries. The authors emphasize that, given the definition of war given by Clausewitz (“war is the continuation of politics by other means”), global conflicts require new tools and methods for their solution – a strategic information warfare.

The research allowed to identify the following key features of this type of warfare: a relatively low cost of IP, the collapse of the status of traditional state boundaries in the preparation and conduct of information operations, strengthening the role of management perception of the situation by manipulating the information in its description, change the priorities of the strategic intelligence that shift toward the conquest and retention of information superiority, the complication early detection of problems of information operations; the complexity of the coalition against the aggressor, unleashed an information war (IW), the presence of a potential threat to the United States.

Conclusion

“The information war is the war a new type of object it is the people’s consciousness. It is based on the ability to manage and manipulate public opinion, the subordination of the will of man. Therefore the following research paper has developed the understanding and has conducted the research that information warfare is a study of science, scientific-methodical and specialized literature, and Internet resources. It has revealed the nature and characteristics of information warfare techniques and methods of waging it, analyzed the most extensive information war in the modern era, and estimated the risk of information warfare in the future. The world turns to the highly charged field of battle of ideas. This is not the same world in which the material base has been the subject of fierce competition. In this emerging world, the key to success is a skillful management of information resources and opportunities, i.e. strategic planning and management.

 

 

References

 

Alberts, D.S, Gartska, J.J., & Stein, F.P. (1999). Network centric warfare: Developing and leveraging information superiority. Washington: CCRP.

Boisot, M.H. (1998). Knowledge assets. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Campen, A. D. (Ed.). (1992). The first information war: The story of communications, computers, and intelligence systems in the Persian Gulf War. Fairfax, VA: AFCEA International Press.

Data  retrieved from http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2009-03/uoh-iwi031809.php on 17th July.2012.

Deception: Perspective on human and nonhuman deceit (pp. 41-52). Albany: State University of New York Press.

Failka, J.J (1997). War by other means: Economic espionage in America. New York: W.W Norton.

Glantz, D.M. (1987). The red mask: The nature and legacy of Soviet military deception in the second world

Martin C. Libicki, Senior F. (1995).  What Is Information Warfare? Strategic Forum Number 28.

Russow, L.M. (1986) Deception: A philosophical perspective. In R. W. Mitchell & N. S. Thompson (Eds.),

Smith, C.L. (1988). Soviet maskirovka, Aerospace Power Journal, Spring.

Street, J. (2001). Mass media, politics and democracy. Houndmills: Palgrave.

 

 

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This entry was posted on March 25, 2012 by in communication, MEDIA, politics, society.

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